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巴黎人贵宾厅

An accessible world is a better world for everyone.

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宇宙的联觉

Turning images of space into music makes the universe more accessible and beautiful.

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可访问性的历史

在ADA之前, Americans with disabilities had been excluded from society … and generally barred from social p艺术icipation by lack of accessibility and stigma.”

迈克尔·阿什利·斯坦, co-founder and executive director of the 巴黎人贵宾厅法学院 Project on Disability

迈克尔·斯坦微笑

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The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)

迈克尔·阿什利·斯坦, co-founder and executive director of the 巴黎人贵宾厅法学院 Project on Disability, talks about the significance of the ADA over the last 30 years, and what it has meant for the people it protects.

阅读更多巴黎人贵宾会官方网址美国助理检察官的信息

Stairs with multiplication tables on them

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)

In 1975, public schools in the United States accommodated only one out of five children with disabilities. Many states had laws that explicitly excluded children with disabilities from attending public school. Professor Thomas Hehir reflects on the current state of disabilities education as we celebrate the 40th anniversary of IDEA.

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面试官: 1975年美国.S. public schools accommodated only one out of five children with disabilities. Many States had laws that explicitly excluded children with certain types of disabilities from attending school including children who were deaf and blind. Yet, 1975 Federal legislation came along and made great change for our country. 1975年,Tom Hehir是一名教师, 40 years later Tom Hehir is still a teacher here at the Harvard Ed School. 现在和我们在一起,汤姆. 欢迎来到EdCast.
HEHIR马特:谢谢.
面试官: Tom in 1975 where were you and what was the state of disabilities education?
HEHIR: 1975 I was teaching at Keefe Tech in Framingham which was a regional voc-tech school. I was a special education teacher. I was teaching kids with disabilities. Massachusetts, I had a comprehensive special education law. A few years before the Federal law. So, a lot of what the Federal law did was already being done in Massachusetts, 哪一号, the most important thing was extending education to all children who had disabilities. In 1975 I was working in a regional voc-tech school that was integrating kids with disabilities into the mainstream. I was also at that time working after school in an institution for adolescence, well kids with adolescence who had disabilities who were living in a State institution, getting those kids ready to be returned to their communities. 因为其中一件事, one of the most important accomplishments of IDEA was extending education, p艺术icular these students with intellectual disabilities, or what was then referred to as mental retardation. And here in Massachusetts which was the case virtually everywhere there were State institutions in which large numbers of those children were housed at that time. 估计是400个,000 children and adults mostly with intellectual disabilities, many with physical disabilities like Cerebral Palsy. Some with mental health issues were institutionalized in the United States and they were in, most of them were kept in deplorable condition. Very few of the kids really got what you would call education today. So, I was working with kids in the community who had similar disabilities like Down’s syndrome and who were doing pretty well because they were being educated in the community. Some communities in Massachusetts you know, 总是教育每个人都, but then going to the institution you know, after school and seeing kids who couldn’t read, couldn’t speak who had the same disabilities because of the condition in which they were kept. So, I think one of the greatest accomplishments of IDEA has been providing education to all kids. And nationally they estimated that between 800,000 and a million kids were completely excluded from school and that was very, 这在当时很常见.
面试官: So Massachusetts was a little bit ahead of the curve, but at the time in 1975 this was a big deal for the country and a little bit of history lesson about how this legislation came about, how it was kind of pushed through and how it’s changed in 40 years, celebrating its 40th anniversary this year.
HEHIR:是啊. From my perspective and I think other scholars would agree, that there were basically two things that were happening simultaneously. 一个, you’ll be pleased to know Matt, 媒体人, 是因为媒体吗, was due to the fact that there had been exposes of these institutions. Most notably an expose done by Geraldo Rivera of Willowbrook which was the largest institution in the country and which was located in Staten Island. And he snuck in there with a camera and exposed the deplorable conditions. Back then and this is an interesting take on the media for the younger listeners. Back then there were only really three networks and if you were covered by one of them you were covered by three of them at the 6:00 nightly news, 这每个人都看. So, there was kind of a common media experience that people had. 所以, these exposes began being covered by the media. And the average American didn’t know these places existed and found it quite disgusting that the government was subjecting people to conditions that were you know, 恶劣和危险. 所以, that was you know, that was kind of in the political stream, talk about policy. 但, also at the same time you know, given the time this was you know, during the Viet Nam time and during a time when there was a lot of questioning of existing power structures. There were a number of lawsuits that were initiated by public interest, 法律组织, advocacy organizations that were challenging the exclusion of kids from school, 根据第14修正案. That basically saying that the exclusion, 这个论点, 法律论证, which by the way hadn’t really prevailed up to this time because the 14th Amendment was around for a long time in 1975. 但, in the late 60’s and early 70’s these lawsuits began to be found in favor of plaintiff’s so that they would, there was a big one in Pennsylvania called PARK, where the state of Pennsylvania agreed to enter into consent agreement rather than go to court around the exclusion of children again, with intellectual disabilities in the State of Pennsylvania. So, there was a big state and the District of Columbia had a similar suit. So, these suits were moving through the courts and so, there was an interest in the p艺术 of Congress to take this up as a national issue. The other thing that happened before the passage of IDEA which was the passage of Section 504, 前两年. Section 504 is Section 504 the Rehabilitation Act and it was through a simple reauthorization of that piece of legislation that advocates were successful in putting in just one clause in that, in that law which was that basically that any entity that received federal funds that discriminated against people with disabilities, 这是违法的. 所以, 这意义深远, very far reaching law and it was very much modeled after the Civil Rights, the 64 Civil Rights Statute and so forth. Which basically meant that school districts that didn’t enroll kids with disabilities were in violation of Section 504. So the section 504 that passed, there were these lawsuits going on, there was this media attention, 但是你知道, there was the need to provide school districts with assistance in being able to meet, now what was becoming a legal obligation, 那就是教育所有的孩子. 所以, IDEA first and foremost was a funding belt. 你知道 Section 504 just told you had to do it. 它没有给你钱. And IDEA gave state’s money, but with a lot of strings. I mean you had to do individual, you had to find kids. You had to do what was called child find. You had to do individualized education. You had to give parents significant rights over the placement of their kids. It’s a pretty far reaching law, but it was all tied to whether States accepted the money. The vast majority of States st艺术ed accepting money right away. Some of them took as long as 10 years to take IDEA money.
面试官: Tom is it a success 40 years later? Are you happy with the results? I know it’s nothing is ever ultimately perfect in all respects, but are you pleased in general and where can it be better? 它在哪里可以改进?
HEHIR: I think it’s a qualified success from my perspective. 你知道 the extension of education to all kids I think is an unqualified success. I mean kids are better with education than without it. 但, we, there are still issues that I think need to be addressed. I think there’s still a lot of segregation of kids with disabilities that is unnecessary and contrary to what research would say would be the best practices for those kids. 我想有很多学区, there are kids who get identified as needing special education that really could have gotten other approaches in general education that would have been far more effective. And that’s p艺术icularly true for low income kids and kids of color. So, you know again, I think it’s a qualified success. I think there were some places that haven’t embraced, that still haven’t embraced the values of the law which are around inclusion, which are around providing kids with what they need to be successful and from that perspective I think it’s, I think there may be some things we need to do to ramp it up.
面试官: Tom, always a pleasure talking to you. You’re always one of the best people in the world to talk about these issues. 你也出了一本书. I’d be remised if I didn’t ask you about that.
HEHIR:是啊. 好吧, 我有几本书, 但是那个, my most recent book is about students with disabilities here at Harvard and when I first came to teach here in 2000, after worked in the Clinton administration, I st艺术ed seeing students with disabilities in my classes. And when I was a student here there really weren’t many students with disabilities and it was for me, a wonderful thing because my life’s work is about and so, 我开始问学生, you know I wanted to hear their stories. 你知道, how did you get to Harvard if you never heard a word and you write beautiful English, and your first language is American Sign Language. 你知道 how do you get to Harvard if you couldn’t speak because you had Cerebral Palsy or you couldn’t see? Or, you couldn’t learn to read because you had dyslexia. I wanted to know their stories because again, when you think about achieving at the level you have to achieve to come to a school like Harvard, a lot of things have had to go right in your education and also I would say within your family. 所以, I based this book on 16 students that I’ve had in classes that have all kinds of disabilities. Disabilities that were obvious by first or second grade. They’re not disabilities on the margins, they’re students who you know, who I mentioned were deaf or students who could not learn how to read. Two of the students in the book have had suicide attempts, had pretty significant mental health issues, 因此,, so basically the book is about you know what, you know if stories and for most of them IDEA was p艺术 of the story.
面试官: Undoubtedly benefited by this legislation. Here we are celebrating 40 years of it today. Tom thank you for being on the EdCast.
HEHIR马特:好的.
面试官: This has been the Harvard EdCast Production, the Harvard Graduate School of Education and I’m your host Matt Weber. Thank you kindly for listening.

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可访问性向前推

Meet the Harvard experts who are working to ensure that physical and digital spaces are accessible to everyone.

“Testing a new sign and collecting feedback within our community is the most critical piece of the process because language is a living thing."

曼迪霍顿, project lead on a collaboration between Harvard’s Center for Integrated Quantum Materials (CIQM) and The Learning Center for the Deaf (TLC)

 

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Two people doing sign language

[C]hanging the conversation and bringing disability bias to the front of the mind for the everyday person will be necessary to change that bias."

泰Charlesworth, a postdoc in the Dep艺术ment of Psychology researching implicit biases toward disabilities

泰Charlesworth外.

If you’re not testing with users who have disabilities, you’re missing a whole segment of the population; it would be like only testing with men.”

艾米Deschenes, head of UX and digital accessibility for Harvard Library

艾米Deschenes

Imagine a hurricane: people with disabilities would need early access to shelter, 社会支持, 和医疗援助."

大卫Liebmann, Graduate School of Education student researching the intersection of climate change and disability

大卫Liebmann

Technology companies are acknowledging that they can play a major role in assisting the underserved and the disabled."

Karae莱尔线, 巴黎人贵宾厅商学院(Harvard Business School) alum and CEO of Vista Center for the Blind and Visually Impaired, a nonprofit that offers evaluation, 咨询, 培训, and education for the visually impaired

Karae莱尔线

在我们的校园

Explore the steps we’re taking to ensure that 巴黎人贵宾厅 is a leader in accessibility.

如何成为盟友

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法学院建筑

How to become a human rights advocate

The 巴黎人贵宾厅法学院 Project on Disability lays out some steps you can take to become an advocate for yourself and your community.

Learn more from the Project on Disability

如何与残疾歧视作斗争

Learn what ableism is and how you can reduce it with this video from the 巴黎人贵宾厅肯尼迪学院 Women and Public Policy Program.


The grass and walkways in front of the Science and Engineering building

How to design spaces for a variety of human bodies

Four accessibility practitioners talk about ways to move the field forward.

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